Learning from the District to Indonesia and the World

Bogor, March 14, 2016

Locally Appropriate Mitigations Actions activities in Indonesia (LAMA-I) is the cooperative beetween the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) and the Royal Danish Embassy (Danida), Denmark. LAMA-I's activities carried out on six district of the two provinces, namely Musi Rawas District, Musi Banyuasin, and Banyuasin of South Sumatra Province. Three other districts, namely Jaya Wijaya District, Jayapura and Merauke in Papua province. To assist the District in planning mitigation actions, LAMA-I's program in cooperation with ICRAF, GIZ, and CCROM SEAP - IPB. LAMA-I's activities in CoP 21 forum Paris in substance would like to convey the role of district in Indonesia in an effort to reduce CO2e emissions and participate in global emissions reduction efforts.

  System INDC Indonesia
In the LAMA-I's session at the Indonesian Pavilion in Paris, Dr. Medrilzam from Bappenas stated that, "Indonesia has built Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC). INDC was developed with dynamic system approach consisting of five sectors, namely land base, energy, transport, industry and waste. Based on INDC, baseline emissions by Indonesia in 2030 amounted to 2,881 Gton CO2e. The composition of emission based on Indonesia's baseline for every period are different".

In 2010, Indonesia's emissions from land-based activities (AFOLU, peat decomposition and fires) by 61% and 29% of emissions from energy, waste 7% and IPPU 3%. This shows that Indonesia's emissions until 2010 were mainly derived from land-based sector. In 2020, Indonesia's emissions from AFOLU, peat decomposition and peat fires by 41%, energy 46%, waste 10% and IPPU 3%. This means that in 2020, Indonesia's largest emissions come from the energy sector. In 2030 baseline Indonesia's emissions from AFOLU, peat decomposition and peat fires by 37%, the energy sector is 50%, waste 10% and IPPU 3%. Based INDC, that in 2030 Indonesia's largest emissions come from the energy sector.

Medrilzam continued that, "based on the condition of these emissions, Indonesia planned reduction in emissions by 2030 for all sectors of the two scenarios is fair scenario and ambitious scenario. Indonesia's emissions reduction target by 2030 either by fair scenario, or the ambitious scenario, which is mainly derived from land-based sector (AFOLU, peat decomposition and peat fires). Based on the fair scenario, Indonesia's emissions reduction target in 2030 amounted to 832 Mton CO2e or 29% which is comes from land-based sector amounted to 545 Mton CO2e or 19%, energy 253 Mton CO2e or 8.8%, waste 31 Mton CO2e or 1.1% and IPPU 3 Mton CO2e or 0.1%".

If using ambitious scenario, Indonesia will reduce CO2e emissions by 1,192 Mton or 41%. Emission reduction target are derived from land-based sector (AFOLU, peat decomposition and peat fires) by 666 Mton CO2e or 23.1%, energy by 472 Mton CO2e or 16.4%, waste 48 Mton CO2e or 1.7% and IPPU at 6 Mton CO2e or 0.2%.

  Emissions Reduction Plan in Jayapura District
Jayapura district is one district that became a pilot LAMA-I activity in Indonesia. Approximately 80% of Jayapura district is a natural lowland forest and mountains.

As presented by Hana Hikayobi, Head of Regional Development Planning Agency Jayapura in CoP 21 Paris, that "to participate in reducing emissions, Jayapura district has formed a working group (Pokja) low emission development LAMA-I in 2013. Of the activities LAMA-I has done development Pokja capacity through training, seminars and study visits".

Now the Pokja of Jayapura district has been making low-emission development documents. Emissions Jayapura district for land based sectors of the 1990-2000 period amounted to 24.06 Mton CO2e. In 2010-2014, emissions from Jayapura district amounted to 30.11 Mton CO2e. Emissions are caused by the activities of forest degradation more than 50% and 23% due to deforestation.

Furthermore, Hana Hikayobi states that "based on the analysis of historical emission, Jayapura district has the potential to reduce emissions by 19.2 Mton CO2e or 23.5% in 2030".

  Policies Integration for Mitigation
At the LAMA-I's session activities in Paris, also presented Prof. Dr. Rizaldi Boer, Executive Director from Centre for Climate Risk and Opportunity Management in Southeast Asia Pasific (CCROM SEAP IPB). According Rizaldi Boer, "required four important step in mainstreaming climate change issues into regional planning documents such as RPJMD, Strategic Plan (Renstra) and Annual Work Plan". Four steps are essential to keep the emission reduction scenarios can be implemented well.

Four successful step by Rizaldi Boer the first is identification of the program. The activities can be done through the process of tagging. Activity program identification could help the region to better understand the programs that will contribute to the mitigation actions and to evaluate programs that contribute in addressing development issues (poverty, education, government, infrastructure, health, and others) and mitigation of climate change (deforestation, forest degradation, etc.) and environmental services.

The second step that needs to be understood is based on the analysis of past and future. Things that were analyzed include risk mapping of the emissions and determination of the priority areas of mitigation actions. To perform the analysis of historical emissions could be used LUMENS tools. From the historical emission data can be known past emission trends and projections of emission trends in the future. From the historical data can also be known areas that have a high risk of emissions. By knowing the areas that have a high risk of emissions in the future, the local governments can choose the location of mitigation actions in the right area.

The third step that needs to be done according to Rizaldi Boer namely perform gap analysis, synchronization and program synergies between sectors. This step are very important to keep the program carried out on target, contribute to the reduction of emissions and engagement between the sector carried out at the location and the right time. By synchronizing and synergies between sectors, the environmental problems that have been difficult will be resolved by togetherness activities and cooperation activities in funding. To reduce emissions in a region can not be done by one sector alone, but must be cooperation between sectors.

The next most important thing is "to make the mechanism of coordination, synergy, synchronization, integration and MRV for each program", said Rizaldi Boer.

Source: Green Indonesia No. 2 Year II/2016, pages 15-19. Written by MRi and GI Team